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Last month, researchers found a security flaw in the SSL protocol, which is used to protect sensitive web data. The protocol is used for online commerce, webmail, and social networking sites. Basically, hackers could hijack an SSL session and execute commands without the knowledge of either the client or the server. The list of affected products is enormous. In the past, our relationship with our computers was technical.

We cared what CPU they had and what software they ran. We understood our networks and how they worked. We were experts, or we depended on someone else for expertise. Security is never black and white. If someone asks, "for best security, should I do A or B? But security is always a trade-off. A few years ago, a company began to sell a liquid with identification codes suspended in it. The idea was that you would paint it on your stuff as proof of ownership.

I commented that I would paint it on someone else's stuff, then call the police. I was reminded of this recently when a group of Israeli scientists demonstrated that it's possible to fabricate DNA evidence. In computer security, a lot of effort is spent on the authentication problem. Whether it's passwords, secure tokens, secret questions, image mnemonics, or something else, engineers are continually coming up with more complicated -- and hopefully more secure -- ways for you to prove you are who you say you are over the Internet.

This is important stuff, as anyone with an online bank account or remote corporate network knows. But a lot less thought and work have gone into the other end of the problem: how do you tell the system on the other end of the line that you're no longer there? File deletion is all about control. This used to not be an issue. Your data was on your computer, and you decided when and how to delete a file. You could use the delete function if you didn't care about whether the file could be recovered or not, and a file erase program -- I use BCWipe for Windows -- if you wanted to ensure no one could ever recover the file.

Access control is difficult in an organizational setting. On one hand, every employee needs enough access to do his job. On the other hand, every time you give an employee more access, there's more risk: he could abuse that access, or lose information he has access to, or be socially engineered into giving that access to a malfeasant. China is the world's most successful Internet censor. While the Great Firewall of China isn't perfect, it effectively limits information flowing in and out of the country. But now the Chinese government is taking things one step further.

Under a requirement taking effect soon, every computer sold in China will have to contain the Green Dam Youth Escort software package. To hear the media tell it, the United States suffered a major cyberattack last week. Stories were everywhere. North Korea was blamed.

Since January, the Conficker. B worm has been spreading like wildfire across the internet, infecting the French navy, hospitals in Sheffield, the court system in Houston, Texas, and millions of computers worldwide. One of the ways it spreads is by cracking administrator passwords on networks. Which leads to the important question: why are IT administrators still using easy-to-guess passwords? On October 24, he was fired. Before he left, he slipped a logic bomb into the organization's network.

The bomb would have "detonated" on January It was programmed to disable access to the server on which it was running, block any network monitoring software, systematically and irretrievably erase everything -- and then replicate itself on all 4, Fannie Mae servers. The Internet isn't really for us. We're here at the beginning, stumbling around, just figuring out what it's good for and how to use it. The Internet is for those born into it, those who have woven it into their lives from the beginning.

The Internet is the greatest generation gap since rock and roll, and only our children can hope to understand it. As the first digital president, Barack Obama is learning the hard way how difficult it can be to maintain privacy in the information age. Earlier this year, his passport file was snooped by contract workers in the State Department. In October, someone at Immigration and Customs Enforcement leaked information about his aunt's immigration status.

And in November, Verizon employees peeked at his cellphone records. These days, losing electronic devices is less about the hardware and more about the data. Hardly a week goes by without another newsworthy data loss. People leave thumb drives, memory sticks, mobile phones and even computers everywhere. And some of that data isn't easily replaceable. When he becomes president, Barack Obama will have to give up his BlackBerry. Aides are concerned that his unofficial conversations would become part of the presidential record, subject to subpoena and eventually made public as part of the country's historical record.

This reality of the information age might be particularly stark for the president, but it's no less true for all of us. Conversation used to be ephemeral. You might not have realized it, but the next great battle of cryptography began this month. It's not a political battle over export laws or key escrow or NSA eavesdropping, but an academic battle over who gets to be the creator of the next hash standard.

Hash functions are the most commonly used cryptographic primitive, and the most poorly understood. You can think of them as fingerprint functions: They take an arbitrary long data stream and return a fixed length, and effectively unique, string. I've been reading a lot about how passwords are no longer good security.

The reality is more complicated.

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Passwords are still secure enough for many applications, but you have to choose a good one. Quantum cryptography is back in the news, and the basic idea is still unbelievably cool, in theory, and nearly useless in real life. The idea behind quantum crypto is that two people communicating using a quantum channel can be absolutely sure no one is eavesdropping. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle requires anyone measuring a quantum system to disturb it, and that disturbance alerts legitimate users as to the eavesdropper's presence. No disturbance, no eavesdropper — period. Information insecurity is costing us billions.

We pay for it in theft: information theft, financial theft. We pay for it in productivity loss, both when networks stop working and in the dozens of minor security inconveniences we all have to endure. We pay for it when we have to buy security products and services to reduce those other two losses. Despite the best efforts of the security community, the details of a critical internet vulnerability discovered by Dan Kaminsky about six months ago have leaked. Hackers are racing to produce exploit code, and network operators who haven't already patched the hole are scrambling to catch up.

30 Cyber Security Research Paper Topics - A Research Guide for Students

The whole mess is a good illustration of the problems with researching and disclosing flaws like this. The details of the vulnerability aren't important, but basically it's a form of DNS cache poisoning. This is particularly important because browsers are an increasingly common vector for internet attacks, and old versions of browsers don't have all their security patches up to date. They're open to attack through vulnerabilities the vendors have already fixed.

Last week's dramatic rescue of 15 hostages held by the guerrilla organization FARC was the result of months of intricate deception on the part of the Colombian government. At the center was a classic man-in-the-middle attack. In a man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker inserts himself between two communicating parties.

Both believe they're talking to each other, and the attacker can delete or modify the communications at will. It used to be that just the entertainment industries wanted to control your computers -- and televisions and iPods and everything else -- to ensure that you didn't violate any copyright rules. But now everyone else wants to get their hooks into your gear. OnStar will soon include the ability for the police to shut off your engine remotely. Buses are getting the same capability, in case terrorists want to re-enact the movie Speed.

The standard way to take control of someone else's computer is by exploiting a vulnerability in a software program on it. This was true in the s when buffer overflows were first exploited to attack computers. It was true in when the Morris worm exploited a Unix vulnerability to attack computers on the Internet, and it's still how most modern malware works. Vulnerabilities are software mistakes--mistakes in specification and design, but mostly mistakes in programming. On April 27, , Estonia was attacked in cyberspace. Following a diplomatic incident with Russia about the relocation of a Soviet World War II memorial, the networks of many Estonian organizations, including the Estonian parliament, banks, ministries, newspapers and broadcasters, were attacked and -- in many cases -- shut down.

Estonia was quick to blame Russia, which was equally quick to deny any involvement. It's a mystery to me why websites think "secret questions" are a good idea. We sign up for an online service, choose a hard-to-guess and equally hard-to-remember password, and are then presented with a "secret question" to answer. Twenty years ago, there was just one secret question: what's your mother's maiden name? Today, there are several: what street did you grow up on?

In , Internet pioneer John Gilmore said "the net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it", and we believed him. He told governments: "You have no moral right to rule us, nor do you possess any methods of enforcement that we have true reason to fear. We know what we don't like about buying consolidated product suites: one great product and a bunch of mediocre ones. And we know what we don't like about buying best-of-breed: multiple vendors, multiple interfaces, and multiple products that don't work well together.

The security industry has gone back and forth between the two, as a new generation of IT security professionals rediscovers the downsides of each solution. Wine Therapy is a web bulletin board for serious wine geeks. It's been active since , and its database of back posts and comments is a wealth of information: tasting notes, restaurant recommendations, stories and so on.

Late last year someone hacked the board software, got administrative privileges and deleted the database. There was no backup. Buying an iPhone isn't the same as buying a car or a toaster. Your iPhone comes with a complicated list of rules about what you can and can't do with it. You can't install unapproved third-party applications on it.

You can't unlock it and use it with the cellphone carrier of your choice. Whenever I talk or write about my own security setup, the one thing that surprises people -- and attracts the most criticism -- is the fact that I run an open wireless network at home. There's no password. There's no encryption. Anyone with wireless capability who can see my network can use it to access the internet. Predictions are easy and difficult. Roy Amara of the Institute for the Future once said: "We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.

Moore's Law is easy: In 10 years, computers will be times more powerful. My desktop will fit into my cell phone, we'll have gigabit wireless connectivity everywhere, and personal networks will connect our computing devices and the remote services we subscribe to. Other aspects of the future are much more difficult to predict. Computer security is hard. Software, computer and network security are all ongoing battles between attacker and defender. And in many cases the attacker has an inherent advantage: He only has to find one network flaw, while the defender has to find and fix every flaw.

Random numbers are critical for cryptography: for encryption keys, random authentication challenges, initialization vectors, nonces, key-agreement schemes, generating prime numbers and so on. Break the random-number generator, and most of the time you break the entire security system.

Which is why you should worry about a new random-number standard that includes an algorithm that is slow, badly designed and just might contain a backdoor for the National Security Agency.

Generating random numbers isn't easy, and researchers have discovered lots of problems and attacks over the years. The hardest thing about working in IT security is convincing users to buy our technologies. An enormous amount of energy has been focused on this problem—risk analyses, ROI models, audits—yet critical technologies still remain uninstalled and important networks remain insecure.

But I know the problem is temporary: in the long run, the information security industry as we know it will disappear. We pay for it—year after year—when we buy security products and services. But all the money we spend isn't fixing the problem, which is insecure software. Typically, such software is badly designed and inadequately tested, comprising poorly implemented features and security vulnerabilities. The Storm worm first appeared at the beginning of the year, hiding in e-mail attachments with the subject line: " dead as storm batters Europe. Although it's most commonly called a worm, Storm is really more: a worm, a Trojan horse and a bot all rolled into one.

It's also the most successful example we have of a new breed of worm, and I've seen estimates that between 1 million and 50 million computers have been infected worldwide. Sports referees are supposed to be fair and impartial. They're not supposed to favor one team over another. And they're most certainly not supposed to have a financial interest in the outcome of a game. Tim Donaghy, referee for the National Basketball Association, has been accused of both betting on basketball games and fixing games for the mob.

To the average home user, security is an intractable problem. Microsoft has made great strides improving the security of their operating system "out of the box," but there are still a dizzying array of rules, options, and choices that users have to make. How should they configure their anti-virus program? What sort of backup regime should they employ? Last month Marine Gen. James Cartwright told the House Armed Services Committee that the best cyberdefense is a good offense. As reported in Federal Computer Week , Cartwright said: "History teaches us that a purely defensive posture poses significant risks," and that if "we apply the principle of warfare to the cyberdomain, as we do to sea, air and land, we realize the defense of the nation is better served by capabilities enabling us to take the fight to our adversaries, when necessary, to deter actions detrimental to our interests.

The general isn't alone. In , the entertainment industry tried to get a law passed. And there probably isn't a sysadmin in the world who doesn't want to strike back at computers that are blindly and repeatedly attacking their networks. Marcus's side can be found on his website. There are security experts who insist penetration testing is essential for network security, and you have no hope of being secure unless you do it regularly.

And there are contrarian security experts who tell you penetration testing is a waste of time; you might as well throw your money away. Both of these views are wrong. Windows Vista includes an array of "features" that you don't want. These features will make your computer less reliable and less secure. They'll make your computer less stable and run slower. They will cause technical support problems. The U. National Institute of Standards and Technology is having a competition for a new cryptographic hash function.

This matters. The phrase "one-way hash function" might sound arcane and geeky, but hash functions are the workhorses of modern cryptography. Identity theft is the information age's new crime. A criminal collects enough personal data on the victim to impersonate him to banks, credit card companies and other financial institutions.

Then he racks up debt in the victim's name, collects the cash and disappears. The victim is left holding the bag. Ever since I wrote about the 34, MySpace passwords I analyzed, people have been asking how to choose secure passwords. My piece aside, there's been a lot written on this topic over the years -- both serious and humorous -- but most of it seems to be based on anecdotal suggestions rather than actual analytic evidence.

What follows is some serious advice. Full disclosure -- the practice of making the details of security vulnerabilities public -- is a damned good idea. Public scrutiny is the only reliable way to improve security, while secrecy only makes us less secure. Unfortunately, secrecy sounds like a good idea. This essay is an update of Information security: How liable should vendors be? There are many different ways in which we pay for information insecurity.

We pay for it in theft, such as information theft, financial theft and theft of service. We pay for it in productivity loss, both when networks stop functioning and in the dozens of minor security inconveniences we all have to endure on a daily basis. It's a hard question to answer because data is scarce. But recently, a colleague sent me some spoils from a MySpace phishing attack: 34, actual user names and passwords.

It's not just e-mail. We have voice-over-IP spam, instant message spam, cellphone text message spam, blog comment spam and Usenet newsgroup spam. And, if you think broadly enough, these computer-network spam delivery mechanisms join the ranks of computer telemarketing phone spam , junk mail paper spam , billboards visual space spam and cars driving through town with megaphones audio spam.

Consider two different security problems. In the first, you store your valuables in a safe in your basement. The threat is burglars, of course. But the safe is yours, and the house is yours, too. If you really want to see Microsoft scramble to patch a hole in its software, don't look to vulnerabilities that impact countless Internet Explorer users or give intruders control of thousands of Windows machines.

Just crack Redmond's DRM. Security patches used to be rare. Software vendors were happy to pretend that vulnerabilities in their products were illusory -- and then quietly fix the problem in the next software release. What could you do if you controlled a network of thousands of computers -- or, at least, could use the spare processor cycles on those machines?

You could perform massively parallel computations: model nuclear explosions or global weather patterns, factor large numbers or find Mersenne primes, or break cryptographic problems. All of these are legitimate applications. And you can visit distributed. The problem is called click fraud, and it comes in two basic flavors. With network click fraud, you host Google AdSense advertisements on your own website.

Google pays you every time someone clicks on its ad on your site.

I've long been hostile to certifications -- I've met too many bad security professionals with certifications and know many excellent security professionals without certifications. But, I've come to believe that, while certifications aren't perfect, they're a decent way for a security professional to learn some of the things he's going to know, and a potential employer to assess whether a job candidate has the security expertise he's going to need to know. Have you ever been to a retail store and seen this sign on the register: "Your purchase free if you don't get a receipt"?

You almost certainly didn't see it in an expensive or high-end store. You saw it in a convenience store, or a fast-food restaurant. Or maybe a liquor store. When technology serves its owners, it is liberating. When it is designed to serve others, over the owner's objection, it is oppressive.

There's a battle raging on your computer right now -- one that pits you against worms and viruses, Trojans, spyware, automatic update features and digital rights management technologies. It's the battle to determine who owns your computer. This essay appeared as part of a point-counterpoint with Marcus Ranum. One of the basic philosophies of security is defense in depth: overlapping systems designed to provide security even if one of them fails.

An example is a firewall coupled with an intrusion-detection system IDS. Defense in depth provides security, because there's no single point of failure and no assumed single vector for attacks. It is for this reason that a choice between implementing network security in the middle of the network -- in the cloud -- or at the endpoints is a false dichotomy. Some years ago, I left my laptop computer on a train from Washington to New York.

Replacing the computer was expensive, but at the time I was more worried about the data. Of course I had good backups, but now a copy of all my e-mail, client files, personal writings and book manuscripts were Probably the drive would be erased by the computer's new owner, but maybe my personal and professional life would end up in places I didn't want them to be. How would you feel if you invested millions of dollars in quantum cryptography, and then learned that you could do the same thing with a few cent Radio Shack components? Earlier this month, Laszlo Kish proposed securing a communications link, like a phone or computer line, with a pair of resistors.

By adding electronic noise, or using the natural thermal noise of the resistors -- called "Johnson noise" -- Kish can prevent eavesdroppers from listening in. Over the past few years, we have seen hacking transform from a hobbyist activity to a criminal one. Hobbyist threats included defacing web pages, releasing worms that did damage, and running denial-of-service attacks against major networks. The goal was fun, notoriety, or just plain malice. On Oct.

This software tool is run without your knowledge or consent -- if it's loaded on your computer with a CD, a hacker can gain and maintain access to your system and you wouldn't know it. The Sony code modifies Windows so you can't tell it's there, a process called "cloaking" in the hacker world. Zotob was the first major worm outbreak since MyDoom in January It happened quickly—less than five days after Microsoft published a critical security bulletin its 39th of the year.

At a security conference last week, Howard Schmidt, the former White House cybersecurity adviser, took the bold step of arguing that software developers should be held personally accountable for the security of the code they write. He's on the right track, but he's made a dangerous mistake. It's the software manufacturers that should be held liable, not the individual programmers.

Getting this one right will result in more-secure software for everyone; getting it wrong will simply result in a lot of messy lawsuits. Last week California became the first state to enact a law specifically addressing phishing. Phishing, for those of you who have been away from the internet for the past few years, is when an attacker sends you an e-mail falsely claiming to be a legitimate business in order to trick you into giving away your account info -- passwords, mostly. When this is done by hacking DNS, it's called pharming. Financial companies have until now avoided taking on phishers in a serious way, because it's cheaper and simpler to pay the costs of fraud.

In general, the problems of securing a university network are no different than those of securing any other large corporate network. But when it comes to data security, universities have their own unique problems. It's easy to point fingers at students—a large number of potentially adversarial transient insiders. Yet that's really no different from a corporation dealing with an assortment of employees and contractors—the difference is the culture.

Counterpane Internet Security Inc. In we saw billion network events, and our analysts investigated , security "tickets. In , 41 percent of the attacks we saw were unauthorized activity of some kind, 21 percent were scanning, 26 percent were unauthorized access, 9 percent were DoS denial of service , and 3 percent were misuse of applications.

Recently I published an essay arguing that two-factor authentication is an ineffective defense against identity theft see www. For example, issuing tokens to online banking customers won't reduce fraud, because new attack techniques simply ignore the countermeasure. Unfortunately, some took my essay as a condemnation of two-factor authentication in general.

This is not true. It's happened to all of us: We sign up for some online account, choose a difficult-to-remember and hard-to-guess password, and are then presented with a "secret question" to answer. Twenty years ago, there was just one secret question: "What's your mother's maiden name? The point of all these questions is the same: a backup password. If you forget your password, the secret question can verify your identity so you can choose another password or have the site e-mail your current password to you. I am regularly asked what average Internet users can do to ensure their security.

My first answer is usually, "Nothing--you're screwed. But that's not true, and the reality is more complicated. You're screwed if you do nothing to protect yourself, but there are many things you can do to increase your security on the Internet. Last month, Google released a beta version of its desktop search software: Google Desktop Search.

Install it on your Windows machine, and it creates a searchable index of your data files, including word processing files, spreadsheets, presentations, e-mail messages, cached Web pages and chat sessions. It's a great idea.

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Windows' searching capability has always been mediocre, and Google fixes the problem nicely. Considerable confusion exists between the different concepts of secrecy and security, which often causes bad security and surprising political arguments. Secrecy usually contributes only to a false sense of security.

In June , the U. Department of Homeland Security urged regulators to keep network outage information secret. For over two decades, DES was the workhorse of commercial cryptography. Over the decades, DES has been used to protect everything from databases in mainframe computers, to the communications links between ATMs and banks, to data transmissions between police cars and police stations. Whoever you are, I can guarantee that many times in your life, the security of your data was protected by DES. Cryptography is the science of secret codes, and it is a primary Internet security tool to fight hackers, cyber crime, and cyber terrorism.

It's held every August in Santa Barbara. We in the computer security industry are guilty of over-hyping and under-delivering. Again and again, we tell customers that they need to buy this or that product in order to be secure. Again and again, customers buy the products and are still not secure. Firewalls didn't keep out network attackers, and ignored the fact that the notion of "perimeter" is severely flawed. It was a historic moment when, last month, the National Institute of Standards and Technology proposed withdrawing the Data Encryption Standard as an encryption standard.

DES has been the most popular encryption algorithm for 25 years. Since then, it has become an international encryption standard and has been used in thousands of applications, despite concerns about its short key length. At the Crypto conference in Santa Barbara, Calif. These results, while mathematically significant, aren't cause for alarm.

But even so, it's probably time for the cryptography community to get together and create a new hash standard. Criminals follow money. Today, more and more money is on the Internet: millions of people manage their bank, PayPal, or other accounts-and even their stock portfolios-online. It's a tempting target-if criminals can access one of these accounts, they can steal a lot of money.

If press coverage is any guide, then the Witty worm wasn't all that successful. Witty infected only about 12, machines, almost none of them home users. It didn't seem like a big deal. The security of your computer and network depends on two things: what you do to secure your computer and network, and what everyone else does to secure their computers and networks. It's not enough for you to maintain a secure network. If other people don't maintain their security, we're all more vulnerable to attack.

When many unsecure computers are connected to the Internet, worms spread faster and more extensively, distributed denial-of-service attacks are easier to launch, and spammers have more platforms from which to send e-mail. Computer security is at a crossroads. It's failing, regularly, and with increasingly serious results. CEOs are starting to notice. When they finally get fed up, they'll demand improvements. Recently I have been receiving e-mails from PayPal. At least, they look like they're from PayPal. They send me to a Web site that looks like it's from PayPal.

And it asks for my password, just like PayPal. The problem is that it's not from PayPal, and if I do what the Web site says, some criminal is going to siphon money out of my bank account. Welcome to the third wave of network attacks, what I have named "semantic attacks. And they're the future of fraud on the Internet.

The first wave of attacks against the Internet was physical: against the computers, wires and electronics. Did MSBlast cause the Aug. The official analysis says "no," but I'm not so sure. A November interim report a panel of government and industry officials issued concluded that the blackout was caused by a series of failures with the chain of events starting at FirstEnergy, a power company in Ohio. A series of human and computer failures then turned a small problem into a major one.

And because critical alarm systems failed, workers at FirstEnergy did not stop the cascade, because they did not know what was happening. Computer security is not a problem that technology can solve. Security solutions have a technological component, but security is fundamentally a people problem. Businesses approach security as they do any other business uncertainty: in terms of risk management. Organizations optimize their activities to minimize their cost-risk product, and understanding those motivations is key to understanding computer security today.

As it began spreading throughout the Internet, it doubled in size every 8. It infected more than 90 percent of vulnerable hosts within 10 minutes. For the six months prior to the Sapphire or SQL Slammer worm's release, the particular vulnerability that Slammer exploited was one of literally hundreds already known.

Chairman, members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to testify today regarding cybersecurity, particularly in its relation to homeland defense and our nation's critical infrastructure. My name is Bruce Schneier, and I have worked in the field of computer security for my entire career. It has been argued by the security experts that this kind of security assault that can go beyond even the most sophisticated company's defense systems is a huge threat to the security of those using the cyber space and the general public in particular.

One great example of what cyber attackers are capable of doing is the cyber attack in Estonia.

Systems at risk of cyber attacks

The attackers used more than one million computers that operated in over 70 countries to plot an attack on Estonia. They managed to bring down the entire country's computer networks including government and banking systems. There are two ways by which the vulnerabilities are attacked.

The first one is where software developers like Microsoft come up with a security update to scrap vulnerabilities for computer users Cavelty, The attackers then develop malicious programs that are meant to attack the clients PC or the servers that are not yet updated by the latest security update. In most cases it used to take more than month from the time when the security update was released to the first attack. However things have changed and now the period is growing shorter and shorter to even a few days. The other way known as the "zero-day attack" is where an attacker establishes a new vulnerability and immediately attacks it before it has been updated by the latest security update.

Best Custom Writing Service We'll write an essay from scratch according to your instructions All papers are plagiarism free Placing an order takes 3 minutes Prices start from only There are also criminal groups which seek to extort money from the innocent and sometimes ignorant public. For instance, some of them will trick those using the internet into believing that they have won huge chunks of money.

They will then ask then for bank accounts or credit card pin numbers. Cooney argues that the moment they get information that they could use to access the users bank account, they make sure they drain their accounts. There have been several cases where hackers would use email accounts of different people to extort, money from their relatives and friends. For instance, the hacker will impersonate the owner of the email account and send messages to close friends asking them to send money to a specific account number on claims that the owner of the account might be in some kind of problem.

So many people have fallen into such traps and lost so much money. Perhaps the most resent and most dangers cyber security threat has to be cyber-terrorism. The frequency of recent terrorist attacks has made security experts very concerned about the threat US faces due to access to information assets.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines cyber-terrorism as any premeditated attack against computer systems, information, computer programs, or data. Terrorist seek to incapacitate, destroy or exploit critical infrastructure, to cause mass casualties, threaten national security, damage public confidence and morale and most of all weaken the economy Cooney, These attacks are also politically motivated and most often result to violence against targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.

While a virus might prevent someone from accessing information on a computer, cyber-terrorist attacks would cause extreme financial harm or physical violence. Possible target for cyber-terrorism include military installations, banking industry, air traffic control centers, power plants and waster systems. It should be understood that terrorist only require a short time to gain access into a network of critical information like security to accomplish their goals.

They could therefore take advantage of limited opportunity to destroy part of the networked infrastructure. As nations like the US continue to come up with new technologies without really having enough sufficient security processes or software and hardware assurance schemes that extend throughout the networks' lifecycle, it increases the likelihood of an opportunity presenting itself to the terrorist.

The nation's infrastructure and its citizens could therefore be affected by attacks from terrorists. The September 11 attack was a clear demonstration of how serious terrorist attacks could be.

Computer security

They use cyber tools to gather information from various departments as part of their espionage activities. Moreover, most foreign nations are really working hard to develop programs, information warfare doctrines and capacities that could make it possible for a single entity to have serious effects by disrupting communication, supply and economic infrastructure. All these are important for military power and the overall security and therefore could affect the daily lives of citizens in various parts of the country.

As Cooney puts it, the growing levels of both non-state and state adversaries are targeting information infrastructure that includes the internet, computer systems, and communication systems in the most critical industries within countries. For instance in , cyber attackers hindered the communication system of Georgia by using a cyber supported kinetic communication attack to hinder its response to a military attack.

One of the most problematic elements of cybersecurity is the continually evolving nature of security risks. As new technologies emerge and existing technology is used in new or different ways, new avenues of attack are developed as well. Keeping up with these continual changes and advances in attacks and updating practices to protect against them can be challenging to organizations.

This also includes ensuring that all the elements of cybersecurity are continually changed and updated to protect against potential vulnerabilities. This can be especially challenging for smaller organizations. Additionally, today, there is a lot of potential data an organization can gather on individuals who take part in one of their services. With more data being collected, the likelihood of a cybercriminal who wants to steal PII is another concern. For example, an organization that stores PII in the cloud may be subject to a ransomware attack and should do what it can to prevent a cloud breach.

Cybersecurity should also address end-user education, as employees may accidently bring a virus into a workplace on their work computer, laptop or smartphone. Another large challenge to cybersecurity is the staffing shortage. As growth in data from businesses becomes more important, the need for more cybersecurity personnel with the right required skills to analyze, manage and respond to incidents increases. It is estimated that there are 2 million unfilled cybersecurity jobs worldwide.

Cybersecurity Ventures also estimated that, by , there will be up to 3. New advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence AI are being developed that help security professionals organize and manage log data. AI and machine learning can assist in areas with high-volume data streams, such as the following:. As a result of increasing security risks, investments in cybersecurity technologies and services are increasing. Vendors in cybersecurity fields will typically use endpoint, network and advanced threat protection security, as well as data loss prevention DLP.

Cisco also supports real-time malware blocking. McAfee makes cybersecurity products for consumers and enterprise users. McAfee supports mobile, enterprise clouds, network, web and server-based security. Data protection and encryption are also offered. Trend Micro provides users with endpoint, email and web security. As the cyberthreat landscape continues to grow and new threats emerge -- such as threats on the landscape of IoT -- individuals are needed with skills and awareness in both security hardware and software.

IT professionals and other computer specialists are needed in security jobs, such as the following:. Please check the box if you want to proceed. As cloud use increases, many enterprises outsource some security operations center functions. Evaluate if SOCaaS is the best Security teams have plenty of tools at their disposal to help their organizations achieve and maintain S3 bucket security.

Enterprises with the resources to deploy traffic mirroring are gaining security benefits. Frank Siemons explains how traffic Enterprises can employ a network automation strategy to provide some stability for network management and monitoring. Surprisingly, scripting, programming and software development are not exactly the top network automation skills desired by Gluware adds to its network automation platform easier management of changes to device configurations and operating systems.

Digital transformation initiatives may be all the rage in the enterprise, but they also pose significant challenges to CIOs and Companies are moving more applications than ever to the cloud, but many of these initiatives fail. Learn how to avoid making your CIOs can take advantage of AI to improve employee and customer collaboration with cognitive capabilities that are now available Windows 10 performance can slow down over time.

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Prepare for your cloud architect interview with these